You may read aloud to yourself, to a tape recorder, or to a colleague or friend. Find Secondary Sources Putting together a list of books and journal articles on a subject usually starts with a book recommendation from an adviser, a syllabus, searching amazon. Explain any discrepancies and unexpected findings. In the Introduction, you zoom in from general to specific and from the background to your research question; in the Discussion section, you zoom out from the summary of your findings to the research context, as shown in Table 4. At the end of the semester, she was amazed at how much she accomplished without even interrupting her regular lab hours. This means that while all other sections of the research paper use active voice, passive voice is still the most predominant in Materials and Methods sections.

If your method is unpublished, then you need to make sure you provide all essential details, as in 3b. When reading for content and organization, you should control your urge to edit your paper for sentence structure and grammar and focus only on the flow of your ideas and logic of your presentation. What are my results include visuals? The degree of your success will depend on how you are able to revise and edit your paper. Print a double space copy with font size 14 and re-read your paper in several steps. Pitched at the perfect level of sophistication for Yale students, this book walks you through all the steps of a research project. If you want to search Yale’s collections on your own, use these tools:

However, make sure that you do not end your paper with the problems that override your findings.


To get around this limitation, search America History and Life. The section you’re probably looking for begins as One common source of wordiness is unnecessary intensifiers. See right sidebar of this page for suggested books.

Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine – Wikipedia

Faigley L, Witte SP. The biggest challenge for many writers is the opening paragraph of the Discussion section. Revising is a difficult but useful skill, which academic writers obtain with years of practice.

After you get enough feedback and decide on the journal you will submit to, the process of real writing begins. Moreover, outlining the scope of your research by showing the limitations, weaknesses, and assumptions is essential and adds modesty to your image as a scientist. What was the design of your research?

These moves are traffic signs that lead the reader through the road of your ideas. Academic Writing for Graduate Students. In this paper we provide an argument that stem cells repopulate injured organs. Furthermore, cohesion and fluency are crucial in this section.

Focus: Education — Career Advice: How to Write Your First Research Paper

Think of these databases as being high-end, reliable versions of Wikipedia. Printed issues are archived at the Yale Medical Library.

Present the principles, relationships, and generalizations in a concise and convincing tone. All published issues, dating back toare accessible on PubMed Central.

Choosing the best working revision strategies Now that you have created the first draft, your attitude toward your writing should have improved. So do not run how to write a research paper yale the same problems as the writers of the sentences in Discussion of the results For many scientists, writing a Discussion section is as scary as starting a paper.


Behavioral computer-based experiments of Study 1 were programmed by using E-Prime. The purpose of the literature review is to identify a scholarly conversation in which you are going to situate your research.

Critical acclaim for Sandra Birdsell

Research tools that help you find articles in journals, magazines, or newspapers, or other information sources like books videos, and maps. Winternitz, who served as dean of the Yale School of Medicine from Theories, Methods, Individual Differences, and Applications.

Occupy the niche a. So do not run into the same problems as the writers of the sentences in 1: In addition, doing the hardest task first thing in the morning contributes to the sense of accomplishment during the rest of the day.

In other projects Wikimedia Commons. Most of the fear comes from the variation in the section.

Frequency And Discourse Functions. In addition, your text should not include irrelevant and peripheral information, including overview sentences, as in 6. First, go to the home page of this guide and look at some of the databases on the front door.